For the first time, integrated analysis of data from humans, animals and food has been used by three leading international bodies to produce a report on the effect of antimicrobials.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) jointly analysed data from EU member states, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

This holistic approach aims to make better use of the existing data and strengthen coordinated surveillance systems on antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine, and to allow policy makers to decide on the best way to tackle antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals.

The report also identifies data limitations that need to be addressed to allow further analysis and conclusions to be drawn. These include additional data on antimicrobial consumption by animal species, data on antimicrobial consumption in hospitals in more European countries and monitoring of resistant bacteria in the normal flora from both healthy and diseased people.

To read the report, click here on