Researchers have taken a closer look into eye damage, by understanding the detrimental effects of what chronic smoking can have on spatial and colour vision.

Appearing in Psychiatry Research, the research has found that smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day can cause eye damage.

An estimated 34.3 million adults in the United States currently smoke cigarettes and that more than 16 million live with a smoking-related disease, many of which affect the cardiovascular system, according to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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The study included 71 healthy people who smoked fewer than 15 cigarettes in their lives and 63 who smoked more than 20 cigarettes a day, were diagnosed with tobacco addiction and reported no attempts to stop smoking.